So many momentous events happened in Germany on November 9th during the 20th century that it has become known as the country's "day of fate".
The date carries extra weight this year as it marks 100 years since the end of the monarchy, as well as the 80th anniversary of the infamous "Kristallnacht" night of Nazi attacks against Jews.
The fall of the Berlin Wall in a bloodless revolution on November 9th, 1989 is a joyous milestone in German history, ending 28 years of Cold War separation.
But because of the dark chapters associated with the date in the past, it was considered an ill choice for a public holiday. Germans instead celebrate October 3rd, 1990, the official reunification of East and West Germany.